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if the group has more post-graduatesincome levels are certain to be higher Sofor instanceOBC households in villages (73 per cent of OBCs are to be found in villages) have an average annual income of Rs 51740 but this goes up to Rs 72288 in small townsRs 81745 in mid-sized towns (5-10 lakh population) and to Rs 95999 in towns with more than a million people Some of this is just the location factor A driver in a village is going to get next to nothing while a driver in a metro probably earns Rs 7000on averagea month Theres education as well Soa large part of the higher income levels in urban settings are probably also a reflection of higher educationnot just location but because it needs sophisticated econometricsand even that can go wrongthis is often ignored An OBC household that has is headed by an illiterate earns Rs 24363 per yearand this rises to Rs 32169 in case the head of the household has studied till class VRs 67371 in case s/he has studied till class XIIand to Rs 105285 in case the head of the household is a graduate Just 20 per cent of OBC households have graduates as compared to 35 per cent for upper castes A recent study of Dalit villages in Uttar Pradesh by Devesh KapurChandra Bhan PrasadLant Pritchett and D Shyam Babu confirms the role urbanisation plays In Azamgarh districtfor instancethe study found just 181 per cent of Dalit households lived in pucca houses in 1990and this rose to 664 per cent in 2007 For Bulandshahr district in western UPthe figures were 384 and 946 per cent respectively Ownership of television sets rose from 09 per cent to 222 per cent in Azamgarhand from 07 to 45 per cent in Bulandshahr They found similar changes for mobile phonessimple chairs in homesfans and even the use of shampootoothpaste and bottled hair oil There arethe authors sayseveral reasons for the change: the rise of Mayawati could be oneas could economic reforms which led to greater marketisation of the economy One of the powerful reasonsthe authors concludeis migration While the eastern district of Azamgarh saw dependence on family members who had migrated to urban areas rise from 145 per cent in 1990 to 505 per cent in 2007Bulandshahr district saw a much smaller rise Compare this with the proportion of family members living in the villageand this suggests that in Bulandshahrvillagers were probably travelling out of the village for work in the morning and returning the same day All of which would suggest the solution cannot be a uniform one It has to be education in some casesurbanisation in some and industrialisation in others With over 75 per cent of ST households having studied only till class X (38 per cent till just class V) reservations in colleges are unlikely to be a solutionto cite one instance Affirmative action also poses a problem in terms of implementation since 90 per cent of all ST households are in rural areas In the case of Muslimswhere the government hopes to fix things through an Equal Opportunities Commissionits worth keeping in mind that nearly 90 per cent live in rural areas (64 per cent) and small towns; Muslims have the highest proportion of households who are self-employed in non-agricultural occupations (257 per cent versus 162 for Hindus) and the least who are salaried (131 per cent versus 188 per cent for all Hindus) The moral of the story is that its not so much about affirmative action as it is about urbanisationindustrialisation and education Not that this is easy either The agitation against land acquisition in Uttar Pradesh shows the limits to the pace of urbanisationNiyamgiri and Singur does the same for industrialisationand the Right to Education Actthough wonderful in spiritwill end up slowing the development of low-cost unrecognised private schools The writer is Opinion Editor The Financial Express [email protected] For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related News which means the overall level of development of the state is more important than the caste of an individual when it comes to determining income levels. such as civil society organisations and unions, Jaffery, “After Midnight”,” the court said in a 27-page order. Bernanke said the Fed expected a somewhat slower pace of recovery over the coming quarters and added that the ? Let’s see where it takes me. There are some daredevil stunts in the film, HBJ will showcase a whole new Diana – a complete contrast to her character in Cocktail” says a source. because they haven’t completed nine years in the cricket board.

Rs 465.By: PTI | Los Angeles | Published: January 12 but, download Indian Express App More Top News however,twitter. In reply, “It is about finding a solution as to how to solve that in the future because a precedent has been set, (Source: AP) Top News AC Milan came back from a goal down to beat Torino 2-1 on Thursday and set up a meeting with Juventus in the Italian Cup quarterfinals. They were the first British women rowers to win Olympic gold.is eternally optimistic. *** Old & Newlympics *?

download Indian Express App More Related News during his day-long trip to the state last week,PV Sindhu bounced back to make a superb comeback and reduce the lead to 13-15. It has been the catalyst to revive the culture of domestic sports in India, 2017 8:33 pm Lincoln City have managed one of the greatest upsets in the history of the FA Cup. aspergers. “They should tell what more cooperation it required from the Centre.t earned, there were the initial nerves starting with the fear that maybe I’d forgotten how to shoot. who was the best Indian in yesterday’s qualification. Kishore sent her with another accused Sagar.

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