Monthly Archives: July 2019

This brilliant Huawei Watch GT Active deal will save you a tidy

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first_img This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Sign up for the Mobile NewsletterSign Up Please keep me up to date with special offers and news from Goodtoknow and other brands operated by TI Media Limited via email. You can unsubscribe at any time. There’s a multitude of sports modes too, including: triathlon, outdoor running, indoor running, outdoor walking, indoor cycling, outdoor walking, pool swimming, open water swimming, climbing, and trail running.Want to stay up to date with Amazon Prime Day 2019? We’ve got you covered. For more amazing offers, follow us @TrustedDealsUKWe may earn a commission if you click a deal and buy an item. That’s why we want to make sure you’re well-informed and happy with your purchase, so that you’ll continue to rely on us for your buying advice needs. “As fitness trackers go, the Huawei Watch GT gets plenty right; it offers an attractive, comfortable to wear design and solid multi-sport tracking functionality,” is what we wrote in our review of the Huawei Watch GT.“If you’re after a running watch that you’d be equally comfortable to wear at a fancy restaurant as you would on a climbing wall, then the Huawei Watch GT is a solid choice.”For £134.99, you’ll get a very good-looking smartwatch that boasts a 1.39-inch AMOLED touchscreen, continuous heart rate tracking, sleep tracking, GPS, 5 ATM water-resistance and outstanding battery life − we’re talking two weeks between charges. Save £65 on this Huawei Smart Watch DealHUAWEI Watch GT Active – GPS Smartwatch with 1.39″ AMOLED Touchscreen, 2-Week Battery Life, 24/7 Continuous Heart Rate Tracking, Multiple Outdoor and Indoor Activities, 5ATM Waterproof, Dark GreenAmazon|save £65|£134.99View Deal£134.99|save £65|Amazon Amazon Prime Day Dealscenter_img A massive 33% discount on the Huawei Watch GT Active is currently available on Amazon, bringing the price of the attractive smartwatch down to just £134.99 for a limited time only. The Active would usually set you back £199.99.Buy now: Huawei Watch GT Active now just £134.99 (Save £65) at AmazonIt’s a tasty Amazon Prime Day 2019 discount, which will save you £65. If you’re not familiar with the Huawei Watch GT Active, it’s a spinoff of the Huawei Watch GT − which we awarded 3.5 stars out of five in our review. That means it’s good, but not quite one of the very best smartwatches on the market − but at this price, it’s a whole different package. Save £65 on this Huawei Smart Watch DealHUAWEI Watch GT Active – GPS Smartwatch with 1.39″ AMOLED Touchscreen, 2-Week Battery Life, 24/7 Continuous Heart Rate Tracking, Multiple Outdoor and Indoor Activities, 5ATM Waterproof, Dark GreenAmazon|save £65|£134.99View Deal£134.99|save £65|Amazon We’d also like to send you special offers and news just by email from other carefully selected companies we think you might like. Your personal details will not be shared with those companies – we send the emails and you can unsubscribe at any time. Please tick here if you are happy to receive these messages.By submitting your information, you agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy & Cookies Policy. Show More Unlike other sites, we thoroughly review everything we recommend, using industry standard tests to evaluate products. We’ll always tell you what we find. We may get a commission if you buy via our price links. Tell us what you think.last_img read more

Tesla Autopilot on Version 9 Mad Max mode path planning navigate and

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In our latest look at the new firmware, we’re now exploring how Tesla Autopilot on Version 9 works: anything from Mad Max mode to path planning and more. more…The post Tesla Autopilot on Version 9: Mad Max mode, path planning, navigate, and more appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forward

It Appears Nissan LEAF 3G CARWINGS Upgrade Costs Thousands

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first_imgWe’ve included the full email below, so as not to leave any details out:I’m the proud owner of a used 2012 Nissan Leaf and received the email below yesterday. I thought you might be interested because I called a couple of local dealers here in Ottawa to see how much the upgrade would cost.The first dealer (417 Nissan) had no idea what I was talking about and was unable to help me and even told me that it wasn’t upgradable because “it came with the car”. Unreal but sadly typical of dealers knowledge about EVs.Undeterred I contacted a second dealer (Hunt Club Nissan) and they eventually figured out what I was asking for and were able to provide me with a quote (after putting me on hold for several minutes) for the part. Are you ready?$2,298! Just for the module. That’s before tax and installation!I don’t know if my results are typical for a Canadian Leaf owner but that is the cost I was quoted here in Ottawa. I thought you’d like to know and maybe do some digging about this. Needless to say I won’t be doing the upgrade at that price! Especially for an already obsolete 3G connection while Tesla and others are already using LTE(4G) in their cars and networks are talking about 5G roll out.While Tesla offers free over-the-air updates fleet wide, and other automakers just expect you to buy a brand-new car when the old system becomes obsolete, this is compelling information for sure. Over $2,000 for a simple software upgrade goes against everything we keep preaching about electric cars being less expensive overall. Not to mention Nissan’s crazy expenses for a new battery. This is truly ridiculous, since it’s assumed that it can’t cost them very much to update the infotainment. Surely not some ~$2,300!Disclaimer:  Since we only have this single account, and the situation could be dealer or geographically jaded, we’d really love to get a realistic handle on this as soon as possible. Please let us know your related, personal experience in the comment section below. Yes, to get the 3G upgrade from Nissan, you’ll have to put up over $2,000 out of pocket, it seems.In-car internet and internet speed is a big deal in vehicles today. With 4G as the new norm and 5G potentially rolling out sooner rather than later, automakers are jumping on the opportunity to offer the latest and greatest when it comes to connectivity. Meanwhile, a 2012 Nissan LEAF owner reached out to us about the struggles he’s endured in the process of trying to get his interface up to date.Additional Nissan LEAF Content: Nissan LEAF Might Become 10% More Expensive Because Of Brexit 2018 Nissan LEAF Battery Health Tested After 12,000 Miles Source: Electric Vehicle News This Nissan Dealership In Colorado Knows How To Sell LEAFs Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on October 25, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Tesla Model 3 Winter Test Cold Weather Demands A LongRange Battery

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first_imgAs the bitter cold sets in, it’s time to test out the range of your electric car.Or, rather, to sample the range loss of your EV.More Model 3 In The Cold Canuck Doesn’t Like Tesla Model 3 Winter Optimization Update Source: Electric Vehicle News Tesla Model 3 Winter Range In the Real World – Video Tesla Model 3 Winter Tire Test With Rear-Wheel Drive In this example, a Tesla Model 3 is put to the winter driving test. The test concludes by suggesting that you should opt for the long-range battery version of the Model 3.But there’s more to the story to tell.All Teslas have ample range. The Model 3 is not an exception to that rule. But when the cold kicks in, range drops. Depending on the severity of the weather, the drop can be substantial.So, what this video is suggesting is basically that if you reside in a colder region and can afford to spring for the long-range Model 3, then come winter, you’ll be glad you made that choice.This cold-weather driving is always a hugely popular topic here at InsideEVs, largely due in part because we drive cars, not in labs, but out in the elements that Mother Nature tosses our way. And oftentimes that includes cold temperatures and/or snowy conditions. So, watch the video above for some more interesting info on the winter EV driving topic.Video description:In this Tesla Model 3 review video we go over 4 reasons why Performance/AWD/RWD Long Range battery is beneficial over the Standard & Mid range battery.If you’re on the fence on getting a Model 3 (now that European/Austria model 3 are available to order), things to consider before ordering.We look at how the Tesla Model 3 handles winter weather and look at range loss in the life & day of a driving Tesla, especially during the winter season.1) Consider phantom drain2) Don’t rely on public charging stations or paid Supercharging 3) Winter range loss is REAL! 4) Better car performance, longer warranty, better long-term life Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on December 19, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Honda secures battery supply contract for about 1 million electric vehicles with

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first_imgSource: Charge Forward Honda hasn’t been one of the most active automakers when it comes to electrification, but it is now making some big moves, including securing a battery cell supply contract for about 1 million electric vehicles with CATL, one of the largest battery manufacturers in the world. more…The post Honda secures battery supply contract for about 1 million electric vehicles with CATL appeared first on Electrek.last_img

Whatever Bolgers reasons he may yet be overruled

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first_imgOrder by oldest 50 Contact author Greg Wood Share on Facebook Anyone holding an Derby ante post on New Approach should hold on to them. Until after the Guineas anyway. I cannot in my wildest dreams believe that Sheikh Mohammed would allow a horse of his quality, the outstanding juvenile from last year, bypass a race that more than any other the Sheikh wishes to win. The Derby is his missing jewel…my God even Frankie’s got one under his belt now !!! It may be all immeterial as the Guineas is no shoe in for New Approach. I personally hope he wins the Guineas and then moves onto Epsom and The Curragh. Bolger is the shrewdest of shrewdies and arguably the finest trainer either side of the Irish Sea, but he has let his own personal ambitions (as if he still has the deciding say) ahead of those who pay the bills. That is not very shrewd. 25 Share on Twitter Comments 2 0 1 expanded Shares00 Share on Facebook Twitter Sorry there was an error. Please try again later. If the problem persists, please contact Userhelp Email (optional) newest Loading comments… Trouble loading? | Pick 22 Apr 2008 20:36 The Derby Report Sportblog Reply Share via Email Share on LinkedIn Close report comment form Facebook Report Reuse this content,View all comments > oldest | Pick Share Sportblog … we have a small favour to ask. The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.More people are reading and supporting The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we have chosen an approach that allows us to keep our journalism accessible to all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford. But we need your ongoing support to keep working as we do.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism, to maintain our openness and to protect our precious independence. Every reader contribution, big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. First published on Tue 22 Apr 2008 08.30 EDT collapsed comments (2)Sign in or create your Guardian account to join the discussion. Jim Bolger is a man who thinks very carefully about every sentence that leaves his lips, and there is no doubt that he knew he was delivering bad news for many punters when he spoke yesterday about his plans for New Approach.It is true that he had never said that the colt would be pointed towards Epsom, but he did not say that he might not either. Bolger knows as well as anyone that tradition is the bedrock of the sport. When a colt by a Derby winner goes unbeaten in five races at two, the Dewhurst among them, everyone will assume that it is going to Epsom until you tell them otherwise. Bolger has now done that, although it will have been forming in his mind for several weeks, at the very least, during which time plenty of bets will have been struck on New Approach. The backers who placed them have every right to feel aggrieved. At Epsom, too, there will be great disappointment, particularly given Bolger’s suggestion that the Derby now does little for a colt’s value as a stallion prospect. They have enough to worry about at present, after all, with the search for a new permanent sponsor for their Classics now into its second year, and this year’s renewal due to be run with a limited audience due to significant building work. Yet it is difficult to see how Bolger’s view of the Derby from a breeder’s perspective tallies with his enthusiasm for Galileo, the stallion he has used to breed both New Approach and Teofilo, the champion juvenile of 2006. Both colts have subsequently been sold to Sheikh Mohammed, making Bolger a profit that must run into many millions of pounds. Before he revealed the news about his plans for New Approach yesterday, Bolger was asked when he first decided to invest heavily in Galileo as a stallion. When he won the Derby, the trainer said, but then corrected himself, suggesting instead that it was the moment he won his maiden at Leopardstown in October 2000 by no less than 14 lengths. With hindsight, it looks like a significant correction, given that Bolger always chooses his words with such care, and would have been well aware that he was about to pass an unexpected judgement on the Derby’s status. It does offer at least a suggestion that there might be more to this than a burning desire on Bolger’s part to win the Irish 2,000 Guineas. Perhaps there is a nagging doubt about New Approach’s temperament, or his ability to act on the track, or even his stamina on a course where the standard time for a mile and a half is five seconds more than it is at The Curragh. But there is still one possible source of salvation for New Approach’s backers. Bolger may seem unconcerned about the Derby, but Sheikh Mohammed most certainly is, and if he cannot have a winner in his own colours, those of Princess Haya, his wife, would be a very acceptable second-best. It may yet transpire that when the Sheikh handed control of New Approach’s schedule to Bolger, he assumed, like so many punters, that it would not deviate too sharply from the blindingly obvious. Bolger’s mind is one of the sharpest and most composed in racing, but even he may come around if Sheikh Mohammed feels that Epsom is the only place to go. Since you’re here… Topics Reply 22 Apr 2008 19:58 unthreaded Share on Pinterest Share on Messenger Share @Greg_Wood_ Share via Email MrBeast MillieJ Share on Facebook Facebook Tue 22 Apr 2008 08.30 EDT Show 25 Whatever Bolger’s reasons, he may yet be overruled Please select Personal abuse Off topic Legal issue Trolling Hate speech Offensive/Threatening language Copyright Spam Other Twitter Share on WhatsApp Share on Twitter recommendations Threads collapsed Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Sign in or create your Guardian account to recommend a comment Share on Twitter Report Horse racing 100 0 1 All Reason (optional) Support The Guardian Whether or not he eventually wins The Derby the fawning over Sheikh Mohammed and his operation must stop. It’s not exactly rocket science.His buys the best yearlings and has spent a fortune on breeding his own horses.At the end of the 2 year old season he buys any competitors who have won a trial.Next Spring after the trials at Newmarket he buys the horses who win those trials. And he still can’t get it right.Plus – unlike Magnier & Tabor – he’s not even playing with his own money. comment Horse racing View more commentslast_img read more

The Top Ten List Of FCPA Disgorgement Amounts

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first_imgEverybody, it seems, likes “Top Ten” lists.This post highlights the top ten corporate FCPA disgorgement (and prejudgment interest) amounts in FCPA history.The list highlights net FCPA disgorgement (and prejudgment interest) amounts after consistently accounting for (unlike other lists out there) certain credits or deductions in enforcement actions for foreign law enforcement actions or forfeiture amounts paid to the DOJ in a parallel proceeding.1. Siemens$350 million20082. Teva Pharma$23620163. Telia $208.5 million20174. Och-Ziff$199 million20165. KBR/Halliburton$177 million20096. VimpelCom$167.5 million20167. Alcoa$161 million20148. Total$153 million20139. JPMorgan$130.6 million201610. Snamprogetti / ENI$125 million2010last_img read more

Skin tone makes big difference in diagnosis and treatment of dermatologic conditions

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first_imgJun 18 2018Should a health care provider consider the color of a patient’s skin in making a medical decision?If they’re a dermatologist, yes – as long as there’s a scientific reason to do so.”Ethnicity and skin tone can make a big difference in terms of diagnosis and treatment options with a number of different skin conditions,” said Amy McMichael, M.D., professor and chair of dermatology at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.The majority of skin problems – including the one most commonly seen by dermatologists, acne – occur in people of every ethnicity and skin color. However, the amount of melanin, which is the pigment that gives skin its color, an individual has can greatly influence their risk of and reaction to many different conditions. For an obvious example, a fair-skinned person with a low level of melanin is far more likely to get sunburn than someone with a melanin-rich dark complexionBut that doesn’t mean darker-skinned people are immune to sun damage: Their higher levels of melanin offer greater, but not total, protection from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. However, those same melanin levels also make darker skin more reactive to inflammation and injury, resulting in problems such as the development of long-lasting or permanent dark spots at the sites of even relatively minor irritations, such as insect bites.Those dark spots, called hyperpigmentation, are among the dermatologic conditions that occur more frequently, are more severe or appear differently in people with skin of color – which broadly includes those of African, Asian, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Native American and Pacific Island heritage – than in individuals of Caucasian descent.”There are a lot of myths out there about which groups are or are not affected by certain conditions,” said McMichael, who is currently the only African-American woman to chair a dermatology department in this country.”That African-Americans don’t get psoriasis is a big one. We’ve found that a number of people of African descent not only have it but that it can be a lot worse and a lot more extensive. And psoriasis is one of the conditions that can look so different in people with darker skin that it’s confusing and often not recognized by family physicians or even people trained in dermatology.”Misconceptions about whether members of a particular ethnic group are or are not at elevated risk for certain skin diseases are not limited to people outside that group. The Skin of Color Society (SOCS), an international organization of physicians dedicated to advancing dermatology in people with pigmented skin, says that members of these populations “often have an inadequate understanding of the root causes of skin diseases that commonly affect them.””There’s probably more than one factor playing a role there, but I think a lot of it is cultural,” said McMichael, immediate past president of SOCS. “I think if you’re told ‘This is what we get’ you think ‘This is what we get’ and that’s it. There’s no understanding there that the condition can be treated, or maybe even prevented.Related StoriesBritish boys to receive HPV jabsScientists develop accurate, wearable voice recognition deviceResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repair”There’s also the problem of ‘We don’t get that.’ For example, many people in the Hispanic community feel they’re not at risk for skin cancer. That’s not true. Hispanics come in all shades of the spectrum, but people of Hispanic descent who work outdoors and never put on sunscreen or a hat can definitely end up with skin cancer down the line.”SOCS also says that many people with darker skin have misconceptions about potential cures for skin conditions “and spend considerable financial resources on ineffectual non-prescription, folk or home therapies.””For some people, cocoa butter fixes everything. That’s a common cultural thing with African-Americans,” McMichael said. “The problem is that cocoa butter has fragrances and other chemicals in it and can be very irritating. It can be a good moisturizer, that’s basically what it is, but some people will slather it on just about anything, and they shouldn’t.”But people of color aren’t the only ones who should be better acquainted with the conditions associated with pigmented skin, McMichael said. Medical providers – especially family physicians, who are frequently the first providers to be presented with skin problems, and dermatologists – need to be more aware of these issues.That’s because this country is becoming more, well, colorful. As of 2016, five states – Hawaii, New Mexico, California, Texas and Nevada – and the District of Columbia had minority-majority populations (less than 50 percent non-Hispanic whites), and it is estimated that the nation’s population as a whole will become minority-majority before 2050.”This means that many of us are going to be dealing with patients of all ethnicities, even ones we’re not necessarily familiar with,” McMichael said. “We’ll have to be versatile, to take into consideration how their pigmentation or cultural practices affect their particular problem and how it can best be addressed.”The field of dermatology would benefit, she added, if it were more diverse, as it currently ranks near the very bottom among medical disciplines in terms of minority representation.”There are efforts by the American College of Dermatology to improve that,” McMichael said. “That’s not to have more minority dermatologists who’d just see minority patients. It would ideally mean there’d be more dermatologists aware of and sensitive to the factors involved with skin and hair conditions in people with skin of color and how to properly identify and treat them.”Source: http://www.wakehealth.edu/News-Releases/2018/Skin_color_no_small_factor_in_diagnosis_treatment_of_dermatologic_conditions.htmlast_img read more

Researchers discover new protein that controls level of inflammationinducing molecule

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first_img Source:http://www.igc.gulbenkian.pt/pages/article.php/A=425___collection=pressReleases___year=2018 Jul 27 2018One of the major therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases is the inflammation-inducing molecule TNF. However, excess levels of TNF cause side effects and can lead to diseases. In a study now published in the eLIFE journal, the research team led by Colin Adrain of the Gulbenkian Institute of Science (IGC, Portugal) discovered a new protein, called iTAP, that controls the levels of TNF in circulation by regulating its release from immune cells. These findings open avenues for the design of improved therapeutics for inflammatory diseases.TNF is released from the surface of immune cells called macrophages in response to infection and helps to coordinate the actions of the immune system to fight the pathogen. Although beneficial in clearing infection, excess or prolonged TNF release can be harmful. Elevated levels of TNF are associated with septic shock, can drive the development of some cancers, and are strongly associated with chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis).Related StoriesMother calls for protein shake regulation after daughter diesUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancerBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancerSpecific therapies that block the actions of TNF are in clinical use, but are not always effective on their own, and patients sometimes stop responding to the drugs during the course of treatment. A better understanding of the machinery that controls TNF release from cells is important to identify new strategies to treat inflammatory diseases.”For some years now, we have focused on identifying the molecular pathways involved in TNF secretion. TNF molecules are normally attached to the cell surface, but to perform many of their functions, they have to be released from the membrane by an enzyme called TACE. Now we have found a new part of the machinery called iTAP, whose role is to prolong the amount of time TACE spends on the cell surface to promote TNF release”, says Colin Adrain, leader of the IGC Membrane Traffic Laboratory and lead author of this study.The researchers found that when the iTAP gene is removed from human or mouse cells, the release of TNF is reduced substantially, because TACE is destabilized on the cell surface and degraded in lysosomes, the cell’s garbage disposal unit.”If we think of iTAP as a tap that controls TNF release into circulation, controlling iTAP through a drug may enable partially closing the TNF tap in a patient with an inflammatory disease. This may help reduce harmful inflammatory responses without impeding the TNF functions necessary for the normal functioning of the body”, explains Ioanna Oikonomidi, a PhD student at IGC and the first author of the article. But the IGC team warns that “more research and validation is needed before this discovery can translate into clinical advances.”last_img read more

Cord blood of babies provides clue to respiratory diseases

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first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Sep 17 2018New research has found children born in the last three months of the year in Melbourne may have a greater risk of developing respiratory diseases such as asthma.Led by La Trobe University, a team of local (The MACS study) and international (COPSAC2000 and LISAplus) researchers analyzed cord blood collected from hundreds of babies born in Melbourne, Denmark and Germany.They discovered those born during the peak grass pollen season in both hemispheres had high immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in umbilical cord blood – a marker used to predict the development of allergic diseases.Lead researcher, Associate Professor Bircan Erbas from La Trobe’s School of Psychology and Public Health, said the aim of the study was to determine the effect of exposure to high grass pollens during pregnancy and soon after birth.Related StoriesScientists turn type A blood into universal type O, potentially doubling blood transfusion stocksBlood stem cell breakthrough could spare some patients from side effects of cancer treatmentsTulane professor to explore better ways of managing acute respiratory distress syndrome”We know that outdoor pollen exposure during the first couple of months after birth can lead to allergic respiratory diseases and we suspected that exposure during the later stages of pregnancy may also be important,” Associate Professor Erbas said.”Many studies have shown that babies with high levels of IgE in cord blood can go on to develop allergies later in childhood, but little is known about how these levels are affected by exposure to pollen in utero.”The researchers found high IgE levels among babies born in October and December in Melbourne.IgE levels were highest for German and Danish babies born around April – the peak pollen season in Europe.However, they also found being pregnant for an entire grass pollen season may have a protective effect on babies.”We found these babies had lower IgE levels. This was a significant finding and indicates the possible development of a sensitization barrier. However, more research needs to be done and currently we are working on studies to identify the specific risk time periods of pollen exposure during pregnancy on asthma and allergies in children,” Associate Professor Erbas said.She stressed that the study did not suggest that all babies born during high pollen seasons would develop respiratory disease or other allergies.”The study provides new insight that could help us predict and manage diseases like asthma – which are a significant public health burden.”However, it’s important to remember there are a number of factors that can determine who gets asthma or allergies. This is one piece of the puzzle.” Source:http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/articles/2018/release/cord-blood-clue-to-respiratory-diseaseslast_img read more

UK Report Says Proposed IVF Technique Is Likely Safe

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Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The procedure is currently forbidden in the United Kingdom because it would alter the genetic material of an egg or embryo. In February, after years of scientific and ethical assessments and public consultations, the government issued draft regulations that would change the law to allow the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to grant licenses to clinics to offer the procedure. The public consultation on the proposal closed on 21 May, and the Department of Health is expected to issue its response in the coming months. The government must still decide whether to present the proposed law to Parliament for a vote.In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a meeting in February to discuss the issue. There is no federal law that regulates such in vitro fertilization procedures, but FDA has said clinicians would need the agency’s permission before trying it.Today’s report is the third such assessment from the United Kingdom’s HFEA, which regulates the country’s fertility clinics and embryo research. HFEA’s five-member panel concludes that, consistent with the 2011 and 2013 assessments, there is no strong evidence to suggest that the procedure would be unsafe.The latest report examined worries by some researchers that mismatches between the nuclear DNA of the parents and the mitochondrial DNA of the oocyte donor might cause unanticipated problems, as some animal research had suggested. The panel concluded that the risk of such problems is low, but it does recommend that so-called haplotype matching—looking for a donor whose mtDNA type might be similar to the mother’s—be part of the process for choosing an egg donor “as a precautionary step.”The panel concluded that more research in several areas is needed before the technique is applied in patients. For example, it said, not enough is known about how a mix of mtDNA in a cell might affect development and the health of a potential child. (Such a mix could arise if faulty mtDNA from the original egg was unintentionally transferred along with the nuclear DNA.) It also called for more data on human embryos created with the technique. The embryos would not be implanted in a mother, but would be compared with control embryos and perhaps used to derive embryonic stem cells, which could then be studied to learn more about downstream effects of the procedure. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email A proposed new fertility treatment that could prevent certain types of genetic diseases is likely to be safe, according to the latest scientific assessment of the procedure by a scientific review panel in the United Kingdom. But the panel, which issued its report today, says more research in a few areas is necessary before the technique, called mitochondrial DNA replacement therapy, is used in patients.Mitochondria are organelles that provide the cell with energy. They carry their own DNA, called mtDNA, and mutations in those genes cause mitochondrial disease. The symptoms are variable, but organs that use lots of energy such as the brain, muscles, and heart are often affected. Because mitochondria are passed on through the egg cell, the diseases are inherited from the mother. The technique could potentially allow women who carry disease-causing mutations in their mitochondrial DNA to have healthy biological children.Researchers have developed ways to transfer the genetic material from an egg cell that carries faulty mitochondria into a donor egg cell that has healthy mitochondria. The resulting embryo carries nuclear DNA from the mother and father and mitochondrial DNA from an egg donor. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country read more

Scientific advisers tapped to guide Bidens cancer moonshot

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first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The National Cancer Institute (NCI) today named a blue ribbon panel of scientists and other experts to help guide Vice President Joe Biden’s ambitious $1 billion moonshot to cure cancer.Announced during President Barack Obama’s January State of the Union Address, the moonshot project will aim to double progress against cancer in the next 5 years and break down silos that prevent researchers from working together. NCI is spending $195 million on the effort this year and Obama has requested another $680 million for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for next year.The 28-member blue ribbon panel, a working group of the NCI’s National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB), will have three co-chairs: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge cancer biologist Tyler Jacks, who is chair of NCAB; Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, cancer immunologist Elizabeth Jaffee; and NCI acting deputy director Dinah Singer. The other panelists include cancer center directors, researchers in tumor genomics and cancer immunotherapy, patient advocates, and industry leaders, including Patrick Soon-Shiong, CEO of NantWorks, who recently launched his own cancer moonshot to test immunotherapy drugs. Emailcenter_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Some have asked why yet another campaign to conquer cancer is needed now, 45 years after President Nixon declared war on cancer. In a perspective today in the The New England Journal of Medicine, NIH Director Francis Collins and NCI acting director Douglas Lowy offer an explanation. Advances such as a new understanding of cancer as a genomic disease and successes with immunotherapy—harnessing the immune system to thwart tumors—mean that “the time is right for a renewed surge against cancer,” they write. They elaborate on several focus areas described by the White House earlier: preventive vaccines, early detection, single cancer cell genomics, immunotherapy, pediatric cancer, and data sharing. The commentary also reiterates a proposal for a special fund to fund promising research quickly.The advisory board will take ideas from the public and hold a summit later this spring to discuss collaborations with industry. It will pass its ideas to NCAB, which will release a proposed research plan by late summer. The White House Cancer Moonshot Task Force, an interagency group led by Greg Simon, a cancer patient and industry executive, will then deliver a report to President Obama by the end of the year.last_img read more

Five genes that give your nose its shape

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first_imgWhether you have a huge honker, a puny proboscis, or a snubbed schnoz, the shape of your nose is in your genes. Now, researchers have sniffed out five of those stretches of DNA that control nose and chin shape. The team sequenced the genomes of more than 6000 men and women in Central and South America and used photographs of the participants to categorize 14 of their facial features—from cheekbone protrusion to lip shape. Then, the scientists analyzed whether any of the features were associated with certain genes. GLI3 and PAX1, both known to be involved in cartilage growth, were linked to the breadth of a person’s nostrils; DCHS2, also related to cartilage, controlled nose pointiness; RUNX2, which drives bone development, was associated with the width of the nose bridge, the upper area of the nose; and EDAR, which has previously been linked to ear and tooth shape and hair texture, affected chin protrusion. The results, published online today in Nature Communications, may help shed light on how the human face evolved and why different ethnicities have distinct facial features. Moreover, the research could help forensic scientists reconstruct faces based on genetic samples.last_img read more

Science launches the 2016 Dance Your PhD contest

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first_imgGood luck, scientists. Get your #DanceYourPhD on! Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Email Calling all scientists! We want to know what your Ph.D. research was about. Or, if you’re a current Ph.D. student, what are you working on now? But forget the PowerPoint slideshow. We don’t even want to hear you talk. We want to see you dance.The ninth annual Science/AAAS Dance Your Ph.D. contest is open! Got a free weekend this summer? Get together with your friends and labmates and make a dance video. It can be any style, from ballet and breakdancing to your own highly abstract interpretive dance. The final product should be not only fun to watch but helpful for others to gain an understanding of your scientific research. If you can pull that off, you can win a portion of the $2500 cash prize.The deadline for submissions is 30 September. To enter the contest, and to see examples of past winners for inspiration, visit the contest homepage.last_img read more

Bears are bigger killers than thought gruesome video footage reveals

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first_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The scenes start out innocently enough, often with a springtime stroll through Alaska’s Nelchina River Basin. But without warning, things turn grim: tableaus of blood and gore, usually with an unlucky caribou calf at the center.Such is the video footage collected by scientists over 3 years from cameras strapped around bears’ necks, offering the first “bear’s eye view” of life in this bucolic but harsh reserve. One of the team’s main findings: These bears kill a lot more than we think they do. A whole lot more.“It was really exciting because it’s the kind of thing you know occurs,” says Christopher Brockman, a wildlife biologist with the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) in Palmer and lead author of the study. By carefully analyzing the most gruesome footage, the researchers were also able to identify the bears’ prey. More than half of their meals came from moose or caribou calves, whereas vegetation made up nearly 20%, and adult moose made up just over 12%, they report this month in the Wildlife Society Bulletin. But there were also some unusual items on the menu: snowshoe hares, swans, and even other brown bears. In one case, a 10-year-old male killed—and ate—a 6-year-old female bear.Overall, the bears killed an average of 34.4 moose and caribou calves over 45 days. That’s far higher than average kill rates from previous studies using other methods, including aerial observation. Compared with one 1988 study in which scientists counted an average of 5.4 moose calf kills from the air in a different part of Alaska, the new study found an average of 13.3 moose calf kills. The new study also found wide variation in the number of calves killed by any one bear, with one killing 44 calves in 25 days and another killing just seven in 27 days.That matters because kill rates are often used to manage wildlife living in protected areas. For example, if too many calves are being killed by bears, then removing a few of the predators could have a big impact on allowing the moose and caribou population to increase. Alternatively, Brockman says if the management goal is to increase bear numbers in an area, it may be important to pay attention to whether there are enough calves around in the spring to support more of the predators.Still, the study has its weaknesses. The low numbers make it hard to draw any firm conclusions about predation rates, says Martin Leclerc, a Ph.D. student at the Université de Sherbrooke in Canada who has studied how female brown bears use human settlements to shield their cubs. He also points out that the bears chosen in the first year of the study were known calf killers and could thus represent a bias in the overall numbers.But the use of camera collars could greatly improve knowledge about population dynamics in the future, Leclerc says. “The technological development will really help biologists and ecologists to have a more precise understanding of predator-prey relationships.” The behavior of an average brown bear Although researchers found that bears ate a lot more caribou and moose calves than was previously believed, a bear’s life is generally not particularly strenuous. Researchers tracking brown bears in Alaska’s Nelchina River Basin by GPS and collar cameras found that the animals only spent 6.2% of their time feeding, on average—most of their time is spent resting. Bears are bigger killers than thought, gruesome video footage reveals Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Figuring out the “kill rate” of large carnivores is notoriously difficult, says study author Bruce Dale, a wildlife science coordinator at ADFG in Palmer. It’s hard tracking them for long periods over large distances, and it’s also easy to miss a kill. A brown bear might spend a couple days eating an adult moose, compared with just 40 minutes for a caribou calf. So preferred tracking methods—like twice-daily aerial observations—can’t capture the full scope of bears’ hunting and feeding habits. They also can’t capture individual variation in kill rates, resulting in wildly different estimates for entire populations.To come up with a more accurate estimate, Brockman and his colleagues decided to try something new: outfitting the bears with camera collars and GPS trackers. Similar to security cameras, the collars filmed 10-second clips every 5 to 15 minutes for more than a month, from mid-May to late June. “We were focusing on the period of time when the [moose and caribou] calves are most vulnerable to predation,” Brockman says. He and his team collared 17 bears in total from 2011–13.Just seven collars provided the researchers with decent data—the others either fell off, didn’t work properly, or were chewed off their mothers by meddlesome bear cubs. But the ones that did work gave the team more than 100 hours of footage—36,376 clips in total. From those, the scientists reconstructed the bears’ days. Most of their time was spent resting or traveling (60.5% and 21.3%, respectively), and just 6.3% was spent feeding. There were even a few instances of bear mating caught on camera, Brockman says. G. Grullón/Science By Joshua Rapp LearnMar. 17, 2017 , 3:00 AMlast_img read more

Former DOE officials industry leaders urge Congress to protect agencys research budget

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first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country A solar panel array Originally published by E&E NewsFormer Republican officials, oil executives and business leaders are warning Congress and Energy Secretary Rick Perry that proposed budget cuts would have a devastating impact on national security and the economy.In a letter today, 14 energy and economic heavy hitters — including U.S. Chamber of Commerce CEO Thomas Donahue — urged appropriators to fund the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and research and development programs to ensure that the United States maintains its competitive edge. By Christa Marshall, E&E NewsJun. 8, 2017 , 2:45 PM Former DOE officials, industry leaders urge Congress to protect agency’s research budget Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Read more… Signatories pointed to early federal research that helped develop hydraulic fracturing technologies as one example of why the private sector alone can’t fund critical innovation in energy.”Accelerating innovation and increasing American competitiveness are two goals that have always enjoyed broad-based support,” said the document.”This consensus has been sustained by an understanding that innovation has been a driving force behind American prosperity for decades,” it said.The Bipartisan Policy Center and American Energy Innovation Council organized the letter, which went out to both Republican and Democratic leaders of Appropriations committees in both chambers.Signers included Southern Co. CEO Tom Fanning, Exelon Corp. CEO Christopher Crane, Shell Oil Co. U.S. President Bruce Culpepper, Nuclear Energy Institute CEO Maria Korsnick, Former Undersecretary of the Army Norman Augustine, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers partner John Doerr, Pioneer Natural Resources Co. CEO Timothy Dove and PG&E Corp. Executive Chairman Anthony Earley Jr.Others were American Air Liquide Holdings Inc. CEO Michael Graff, Consumer Energy Alliance President David Holt, retired DuPont Chairman Chad Holliday, American Gas Association President Dave McCurdy and Clean Line Energy Partners LLC President Michael Skelly.The missive is unusual for including leaders representing both fossil fuel and low-carbon industries. It also comes on the same day that all seven of the former assistant secretaries who led the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy from 1989 to 2017 sent separate letters to appropriators and Perry warning that proposed DOE budget cuts could slash jobs and stall advances in areas like grid reliability.The Trump administration’s fiscal 2018 budget proposal would slash funding at the Office of Science by more than 15 percent, to $4.5 billion. Fossil research and development, including research on carbon capture technology, would see a cut from more than $600 million to $280 million.Funding for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), which supports research in wind, solar, geothermal and other clean energy technologies, would plunge by about 69 percent, from more than $2 billion to $636 million. ARPA-E’s and DOE’s loan programs are targeted for elimination.The Trump administration said funding reductions are necessary to focus DOE’s efforts on its core missions and basic research.”This budget delivers on the promise to reprioritize spending in order to carry out DOE’s core functions efficiently and effectively while also being fiscally responsible and respectful to the American taxpayer,” Perry said after the budget proposal’s release.DOE did not respond to a request for comment about the letters.Many conservatives say the private sector should lead some of the research that DOE is doing. Programs have picked winners and losers rather than letting the market drive things, they say.But the business executives and former administration officials say the type of research being targeted for cuts is too high-risk for private industry, even though it could be transformational.The former assistant secretaries said that while they have not always agreed in the past on the DOE budget, the proposed cuts to EERE and other offices are so steep that they would harm America’s “energy future.””This is a particularly inauspicious time to cut the EERE budget,” they wrote. Three EERE chiefs in both Bush administrations signed, along with four EERE heads from the Obama and Clinton administrations.China, in particular, is reorganizing its energy R&D efforts on many technologies that were first developed in the United States at taxpayer expense, they said.Cuts to DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability could harm efforts to bolster the grid at a time when it is vulnerable to threats and in a state of flux, said the letter.”R&D to develop the capabilities needed in a modernized grid is critical, yet the electric utility sector invests just .2 percent of sales in R&D,” it said.In addition to supporting renewable and vehicle research, EERE sets mandatory efficiency levels for appliances. Despite “occasional controversy,” the program has bipartisan support, and existing standards could save consumers nearly $2 trillion on utility bills by 2030, the letter said.Reprinted from Greenwire with permission from E&E News. Copyright 2017. E&E provides essential news for energy and environment professionals at www.eenews.net Email Wikimedia Commons/Photo courtesy of U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Nadine Y. Barclay last_img read more

Could November elections scramble a controversial US mission to a frozen moon

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first_img Tom Williams/CQ Roll Call/AP Images Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Could November elections scramble a controversial U.S. mission to a frozen moon? Earlier this year, planetary scientists got a pleasant surprise: a big boost in NASA’s budget, instituted at the direction of Representative John Culberson (R–TX), a leading member of the House of Representatives spending panel. But some of that money—$195 million, to be exact—came with a catch. It had to be spent on a robotic mission to land on Europa, Jupiter’s frozen moon, to search for signs of life.Culberson’s lander has been somewhat controversial among scientists because it hasn’t gone through NASA’s traditional selection and vetting process. And today, researchers at an agency advisory meeting debated whether the congressional elections in November could bring a new lander-related headache: the defeat of Culberson, who is facing a tough re-election contest. If Culberson loses, NASA risks becoming “locked in” to an expensive and complicated project that lacks a key champion in Congress, one researcher worried.By Culberson’s mandate, NASA had already begun to lay out plans for the Europa lander, which could launch by 2026. But at a panel session today at NASA’s Outer Planets Assessment Group, held in Pasadena, California, planetary scientists grappled with whether, and how aggressively, the agency should support the mission. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Emailcenter_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Representative John Culberson (R–TX), who has been a key player in providing funding for a NASA mission to Europa, is facing a tough re-election battle. By Paul VoosenSep. 12, 2018 , 5:35 PM “The science goals of the Europa lander do not follow from our current knowledge of Europa,” said Chris McKay, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Although there is abundant ice for a lander to sample on Europa, he suggested, there is no concrete evidence of other ingredients necessary for life, such as carbon, nitrogen, biologically useful energy, or organic molecules. But given that the lander is already receiving money, he concluded in an about-face, scientists should support it. “A bad life detection mission is better than no life detection mission,” he said.Others had a different view. It’s premature to design and build a lander before the Europa Clipper, which will orbit Jupiter while observing Europa, has had time to scout and map its surface and interior ocean in more detail, said Louise Prockter, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas. (She noted that her views did not represent LPI’s stance.) And the lander’s existence, based on the desires of a single congressman, make it fragile, she added. “The issue for the lander is that congressional support is coming from a single point. We don’t like single-point failures in our missions,” she said. “If that congressional support goes away, we are then locked in to a very large, very complex, very long mission.”A Culberson loss wouldn’t pose a big risk to the project, countered Scott Bolton, principal investigator of NASA’s Juno mission around Jupiter and a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute who works in Boulder, Colorado. “Even if Culberson loses, we know who’s going to come in, and he supports it,” Bolton said, apparently referring the lawmaker who could take Culberson’s place as the head of the spending panel that oversees NASA. (It could be a Democrat, if Republicans lose their House majority.)At this point, Linda Spilker, project scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Cassini mission, tried to steer the conversation away from politics. But Bolton didn’t go along. “We’re trying to figure out what to do with the lander,” he said, “and the lander is in there because of the politics.”At the meeting, scientists developing plans for the lander, who are largely based at JPL in Pasadena, relayed their newest design. Their efforts responded to a push, begun last year by NASA headquarters, to keep costs low. The plan, which would cost several billion dollars, calls for using three spacecraft to ferry the lander its destination. It would then land using a modified version of the sky crane that NASA has previously deployed on Mars. The battery-powered robot would dig a single trench into Europa’s surface with a robotic arm, exposing samples to a large suite of scientific instruments, while operating for more than 3 weeks. And it would focus on detecting biosignatures, rather than direct detection of life.Scientists should not lose sight of how the Europa lander could excite the public, added Alfred McEwen, a planetary geologist at The University of Arizona in Tuscon. “This would be tremendously exciting mission for the general public,” he said, much more so than simply a series of flybys that will come from the Europa Clipper. And any mission that lands on Europa, even if it is not perfect or as complex as hoped, will produce fantastic science, added Cynthia Phillips, a planetary geologist at JPL. Though, she added, “maybe it’s not landing on Enceladus,” the water-spewing saturnian moon that, for many scientists, has supplanted Europa as a top target for detecting life.Scientists at the meeting universally lauded the design work done by the lander team. As designed, the mission could yield great insights on the geology and chemistry of frozen ocean worlds. But what if, as one researcher said during a comment period, the most interesting thing about Europa seen by the Clipper is found on a cliff face? “We’re making a lot of assumptions in the design of the lander that we’ll live to regret once we get the Clipper data.”There was no resolution to this debate, and the final outcome could depend on the results of the 2018 elections. Many scientists are looking for the next decadal assessment of NASA’s planetary science to consider the Europa mission, but by then NASA might have already invested a great deal of money. “And the fact is that Congress is excited about this,” said Kevin Hand, the astrobiologist at JPL who has helped develop the lander concept. “I think this is exactly the kind of mission, the kind of exploration, and potential big discovery, that NASA is chartered to undertake.”*Correction, 18 September, 5:47 p.m.: A previous version of this story stated that the Europa Clipper would orbit Europa; to avoid harsh radiation, the spacecraft will instead orbit Jupiter and fly by Europa for many multiple views.last_img read more

How an ancient cataclysm may have jumpstarted life on Earth

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first_img 4.5 O How an ancient cataclysm may have jump-started life on Earth N. DESAI/SCIENCE 3.5 ATLANTA—A cataclysm may have jump-started life on Earth. A new scenario suggests that some 4.47 billion years ago—a mere 60 million years after Earth took shape and 40 million years after the moon formed—a moon-size object sideswiped Earth and exploded into an orbiting cloud of molten iron and other debris.The metallic hailstorm that ensued likely lasted years, if not centuries, ripping oxygen atoms from water molecules and leaving hydrogen behind. The oxygens were then free to link with iron, creating vast rust-colored deposits of iron oxide across our planet’s surface. The hydrogen formed a dense atmosphere that likely lasted 200 million years as it ever so slowly dissipated into space.After things cooled down, simple organic molecules began to form under the blanket of hydrogen. Those molecules, some scientists think, eventually linked up to form RNA, a molecular player long credited as essential for life’s dawn. In short, the stage for life’s emergence was set almost as soon as our planet was born. 4.35 bya O 4.0 4.53 bya 4.568 billion years ago (bya) Microbial mats called stromatolites emerged early in life’s history—and still persist at Shark Bay in Australia. 4.6 bya 4.51 byaRNA 4.47 bya A head start Multiple lines of evidence from chemistry, biology, and geology help explain how RNA could have emerged, leading to the first life, surprisingly soon after Earth formed. 4.2 P 3.43 bya That scenario captivated participants at an October 2018 conference here, where geologists, planetary scientists, chemists, and biologists compared notes on the latest thinking on how life got its start. No rocks or other direct evidence remain from the supposed cataclysm. Its starring role is inferred because it would solve a bevy of mysteries, says Steven Benner, an origin of life researcher at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Alachua, Florida, who organized the Origins of Life Workshop.The metal-laden rain accounts for the distribution of metals across our planet’s surface today. The hydrogen atmosphere would have favored the emergence of the simple organic molecules that later formed more complex molecules such as RNA. And the planetary crash pushes back the likely birthdate for RNA, and possibly life’s emergence, by hundreds of millions of years, which better aligns with recent geological evidence suggesting an early emergence of life. O OH OH OH OH OH O O N N N N N N NH NH N N N I think we’re seeing back to how life began billions of years ago. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country 3.9 4.4 Email The long-standing explanation has been that after Earth cooled enough to form a crust, additional metals arrived in a hail of meteors. On the basis of ages of moon rocks brought back by Apollo astronauts, geologists suspected this assault was particularly intense from 3.8 billion to 4.1 billion years ago, a period they refer to as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB).But that scenario has problems, Benner says. For starters, fossil evidence of complex microbial mats called stromatolites shows up in rocks just a few hundred million years younger than the hypothetical bombardment. That’s a narrow window in which to move from zero organic molecules to full-blown cellular life.Zircons—those tiny, durable crystals—also pose a challenge, says Elizabeth Bell, a geologist at UC Los Angeles. Zircons are hardy enough to have remained intact even as the rocks that originally housed them melted while cycling into and out of the planet’s interior.In 2015, Bell and her colleagues reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that zircons dated to 4.1 billion years ago contain flecks of graphitic carbon with a lifelike combination of carbon isotopes—biased toward carbon’s lighter isotope over its heavier one. Bell concedes that an as-yet-unknown nonbiological process might account for that isotope mix, but she says it suggests life was already widespread 4.1 billion years ago, before the end of the LHB. Other recent zircon data, including samples from as long ago as 4.32 billion years, hint that very early Earth had both liquid water and dry land, suggesting it was more hospitable to life than originally thought. “We’re pushing back further and further the time when life could have been formed on Earth,” Bell says.Collision courseMojzsis argues that a moon-size cataclysm 4.47 billion years ago could explain both Earth’s veneer of precious metals and an early start for life. In December 2017, he and two colleagues published a set of extensive computer simulations in Earth and Planetary Science Letters showing how the current distribution of metals could have originated in the rain of debris from such an impact. Simone Marchi, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, and colleagues reached much the same conclusion in a paper the same month in Nature Geoscience. Marchi’s team, however, simulated not one moon-size impactor, but several smaller bodies, each about 1000 kilometers across.Whether one impact or a few, those collisions would have melted Earth’s silicate crust, an event that appears to be recorded in data on isotopes of uranium and lead, according to Mojzsis. The collisions also would have profoundly affected Earth’s early atmosphere. Before the impact, the cooling magma and rocks on the surface would have spurted out gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide. None of those gases is reactive enough to produce the organic compounds needed to make RNA. But Benner notes the blanket of hydrogen generated by the impact’s metallic hail would have formed exactly the kind of chemically reducing atmosphere needed to produce the early organics. Robert Hazen, a geologist at the Carnegie Institution’s Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, D.C., agrees that hydrogen could help. With that reducing atmosphere, the wide array of minerals on the planet’s surface could have acted as catalysts to propel the chemical reactions needed to make simple organics, Hazen says.Just before the impact, Mojzsis says, “there was no persistent niche for the origin of life.” But after the impact and a brief period of cooling, he adds, “at 4.4 billion years ago, there are settled niches for the propagation of life.””I’m delighted,” Benner says. “Steve [Mojzsis] is giving us everything we need” to seed the world with prebiotic chemicals. And by eliminating the need for the LHB, the impact scenario implies organic molecules, and possibly RNA and life, could have originated several hundred million years earlier than thought. That would allow plenty of time for complex cellular life to evolve by the time it shows up in the fossil record at 3.43 billion years ago.Enduring enigmasNot everybody accepts that tidy picture. Even if geologists’ new view of early Earth is correct, the RNA world hypothesis remains flawed, says Loren Williams, a physical chemist at the Georgia Institute of Technology here and an RNA world critic who attended the workshop. “I like talking to Steve Benner,” Williams says. “But I don’t agree with him.”One major problem with the RNA world, he says, is that it requires a disappearing act. An RNA molecule capable of faithfully copying other RNAs must have arisen early, yet it has vanished. “There’s no evidence for such a thing in modern biology,” Williams says, whereas other vestiges of ancient RNA machines abound. The ribosome’s RNA core, for example, is virtually unchanged in every life form on the planet. “When biology makes something, it gets taken and used over and over,” Williams notes. Instead of an RNA molecule that can copy its brethren, he says, it’s more likely that early RNAs and protein fragments called peptides coevolved, helping each other multiply more efficiently.Advocates of the RNA world hypothesis concede they can’t explain how early RNA might have copied itself. “An important ingredient is still missing,” Carell says. Researchers around the globe have designed RNA-based RNA copiers in the lab. But those are long, complex molecules, made from 90 or more RNA bases. And the copiers tend to copy some RNA letters better than others.Still, enough steps of an RNA-first scenario have come into focus to convince advocates that others will follow. “We are running a thought experiment,” says Matthew Powner, a chemist at University College London. “All we can do is decide what we think is the simplest trajectory.”That thought experiment was on full display in the workshop’s final session. Ramon Brasser of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, one of Mojzsis’s collaborators, stood at the front of a small conference room and drew a timeline of Earth’s earliest days. A red slash at 4.53 billion years ago on the left side of Brasser’s flip chart marked Earth’s initial accretion. Another slash at 4.51 billion years ago indicated the moon’s formation. A line at 4.47 billion years ago marked the hypothetical impact of the planetesimal that gave rise to an atmosphere favorable to organic molecules.Benner asked Brasser how long Earth’s surface would have taken to cool below 100°C after the impact, allowing liquid water to host the first organic chemical reactions. Probably 50 million years, Brasser said. Excited, Benner rushed up to the timeline and pointed to a spot at 4.35 billion years ago, adding a cushion of extra time. “That’s it, then!” Benner exclaimed. “Now we know exactly when RNA emerged. It’s there—give or take a few million years.” FRANS LANTING/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC IMAGE COLLECTION 4.3 By Robert F. ServiceJan. 10, 2019 , 11:00 AM 4.4 3.8 bya 4.46 bya N Ada Yonath, Weizmann Institute of Science 3.4 The impact scenario joins new findings from laboratory experiments suggesting how the chemicals spawned on early Earth might have taken key steps along the road to life—steps that had long baffled researchers. Many in the field see a consistent narrative describing how and when life was born starting to take shape. “Fifteen years ago, we only had a few hazy ideas” about how life may have come about, says Andrej Lupták, a chemist at the University of California (UC), Irvine, who attended the meeting. “Now, we’re seeing more and more pieces come together.”The case isn’t settled, Lupták and others say. Researchers still disagree, for example, over which chemical path most likely gave rise to RNA and how that RNA combined with proteins and fats to form the earliest cells. Nevertheless, Benner says, “The field is in a new place. There is no question.”The RNA worldLife as we know it likely emerged from an “RNA world,” many researchers agree. In modern cells, DNA, RNA, and proteins play vital roles. DNA stores heritable information, RNA ferries it inside cells, and proteins serve as chemical workhorses. The production of each of those biomolecules requires the other two. Yet, the idea that all three complex molecules arose simultaneously seems implausible.Since the 1960s, a leading school of thought has held that RNA arose first, with DNA and proteins evolving later. That’s because RNA can both serve as a genetic code and catalyze chemical reactions. In modern cells, RNA strands still work alongside proteins at the heart of many crucial cellular machines.In recent years, chemists have sketched out reactions that could have produced essential building blocks for RNA and other compounds. In 2011, for example, Benner and his colleagues showed how boron-containing minerals could have catalyzed reactions of chemicals such as formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, which were probably present on early Earth, to produce the sugar ribose, an essential component of RNA. Other researchers have laid out how ribose may have reacted with other compounds to give rise to individual RNA letters, or nucleosides.But critics such as Robert Shapiro, a biochemist at New York University in New York City who died in 2011, often pointed out that when researchers produced one pre-RNA chemical component or another, they did so under controlled conditions, adding purified reagents in just the right sequence. How all those steps could have occurred in the chaotic environment of early Earth is unclear at best. “The analogy that comes to mind is that of a golfer, who having played a golf ball through an 18-hole course, then assumed that the ball could also play itself around the course in his absence,” Shapiro wrote in 2007 in Scientific American. He favored a “metabolism first” view of life’s origin, in which energetic small molecules trapped inside lipidlike membranes or other compartments established chemical cycles resembling metabolism, which transformed into more complex networks. Other researchers, meanwhile, have argued that simple proteins were a more likely driver of early life because their amino acid building blocks are far simpler than the nucleotides in RNA.Arguments have sometimes been heated. At a 2008 meeting on the origin of life in Ventura, California, Shapiro and John Sutherland, a chemist at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, wound up shouting at each other. “Bob was very critical about published routes to prebiotic molecules,” Sutherland says. If the chemistry wasn’t ironclad, “he felt it failed.” Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) O 4.6 3.8 Today, Benner says, “The amount of yelling has gone down.” A steady stream of new data has bolstered scenarios for how RNA could have arisen. For example, although Benner and his colleagues had previously shown how ribose may have formed, they could not explain how some of its ingredients—namely, the highly reactive small molecules formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde—could have survived. Geochemists have long thought that reactions sparked by lightning and ultraviolet (UV) light could have produced such compounds. However, Benner says, “There’s no way to build up a reservoir” of those compounds. They can react with one another, devolving into a tarlike glop.Benner now has a possible solution, which builds on recent work suggesting early Earth had a wet-dry cycle. On the basis of evidence from tiny, almost indestructable mineral crystals called zircons, researchers think a modest amount of dry land was occasionally doused with rain. In a not-yet-published study, he and colleagues in the United States and Japan have found that sulfur dioxide, which would have belched from volcanoes on early Earth, reacts with formaldehyde to produce a compound called hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). During dry times, HMS would have accumulated on land “by the metric ton,” Benner says. The reverse reaction would have happened more slowly, regenerating formaldehyde. Then, when rains came, it could have washed in a steady trickle into puddles and lakes, where it could react to form other small organic molecules essential for building RNA. Similar processes, Benner says, could have provided a steady supply of glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde as well.The sugar ribose is only one piece of RNA. The molecule also strings together four ring-shaped bases, which comprise the letters of the genetic code: cytosine (C), uracil (U), adenine (A), and guanine (G). Making them requires a supply of electron-rich nitrogen compounds, and identifying a plausible source for those has long challenged origin of life researchers. But other recent advances in prebiotic chemistry, which assume a supply of those compounds, have identified a set of reactions that could have produced all four of RNA’s genetic letters at the same time and place. In 2009, for example, Sutherland and his colleagues reported a plausible prebiotic reaction for making C and U, chemically related letters known as pyrimidines. Then, in 2016, a team led by chemist Thomas Carell from Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany, reported coming up with a plausible way to make A and G, known as purines. The trouble was that Sutherland’s and Carell’s routes to pyrimidines and purines required different reaction conditions, making it difficult to imagine how they could have taken place side by side.At the workshop, Carell reported a possible solution. He and his colleagues found that simple compounds likely present on early Earth could react in several steps to produce pyrimidines. Nickel and other common metals trigger the last step in the sequence by swiping electrons from intermediate compounds, causing them to react with one another. It turns out that gaining electrons enables the metals to then carry out a final step in synthesizing purines. What’s more, those steps can produce all four nucleosides in one pot, thereby offering the first plausible explanation for how all four RNA letters could have arisen together.Benner calls Carell’s solution very clever. But not everyone is on board. Sutherland notes that those reactions are inefficient; any nucleosides they produced might fall apart faster than they could accumulate. To address that concern, others argue that more stable RNA-like compounds, rather than RNA itself, might have emerged first and helped form the first chemical system that could reproduce itself. Later, those RNA mimics might have given way to more efficient modern biomolecules such as RNA. GuanineAdenineCytosineUracilRibosePhosphate 4.5 O O Crystal Shi 3.6 Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe O O O O O O O – O O O – O – O – O O O O 3.7 4.1 bya P P P H 2 N NH 2 H 2 N Solar system forms.Earth forms.Moon forms.Proposed impact of planetesimal forms “reducing” atmosphere. Earth cools enough to have both land and water.Approximate timing of formation of RNA.Zircon materials show hints of life in ratio of carbon isotopes. Proposed end of Late Heavy Bombardment.Fossils attributed to micro-organisms. 4.1 Whichever route RNA’s letters took, other researchers have recently worked out how minerals likely present on early Earth could have added phosphate groups to RNA nucleosides, an essential step toward linking them into long strings of RNA that could then have acted as catalysts and a rudimentary genetic code. And many experiments have confirmed that once RNA chains begin to grow, they can swap RNA letters and even whole sections with other strands, building complexity, variation, and new chemical functions. At the meeting, for example, Niles Lehman, a chemist at Portland State University in Oregon, described experiments in which pairs of 16-letter-long RNA chains, known as 16-mers, rearranged to form 28-mers and 4-mers. “This is how we can go from short things that can be made prebiotically to more complex molecules,” Lehman said. Later, he quipped, “If you give me 8-mers, I’ll give you life.”That process may help explain how more complex RNA molecules arose, including those that can propel the synthesis of simple proteins. At the meeting in Atlanta, chemist Ada Yonath presented one such prototypical proteinmaking RNA. Yonath, of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for working out the atomic structure of the ribosome, the complex molecular machine inside today’s cells that translates the genetic code into proteins. Yonath’s original structure was of a bacterium’s ribosome. Since then, she and her colleagues, along with other groups, have mapped the ribosomes of many other species. Modern ribosomes are behemoths, made up of dozens of protein and RNA components. But at their core, all ribosomes have a sinuous string of RNA with a narrow slit through which budding proteins emerge. The structure is virtually identical across species, unchanged after billions of years of evolution.Her group has now synthesized that ribosomal core, which she refers to as the protoribosome. At the meeting, she reported that her team’s protoribosome can stitch together pairs of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. “I think we’re seeing back to how life began billions of years ago,” Yonath says.All that is still a long way from demonstrating the emergence of life in a test tube. Nevertheless, Clemens Richert, a chemist at the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the University of Stuttgart in Germany, says the recent progress has been heartening. “We’re finding reactions that work,” he says. “But there are still gaps to get from the elements to functional biomolecules.”Earth’s mysteriesOne major gap is identifying a source for the energetic nitrogen-containing molecules needed to make the RNA bases. Lightning and UV light acting on compounds in the atmosphere may have made enough of them, says Jack Szostak, an origin of life expert at Harvard University. At the meeting, Stephen Mojzsis, a geologist at the University of Colorado in Boulder, argued that the moon-size impact is a more plausible spark.Mojzsis didn’t set out to grapple with the origin of life. Rather, he and his colleagues were looking for ways to make sense of a decades-old geological conundrum: the surprising abundance of platinum and related metals in Earth’s crust. In the standard picture of Earth’s formation, they simply shouldn’t be there. The violent assembly of the planet from smaller bodies 4.53 billion years ago would have left it as a boiling sea of magma for millions of years. Dense elements, such as iron, gold, platinum, and palladium, should have sunk to the planet’s core, whereas silicon and other light elements floated nearer the surface. Yet as the wares in any jewelry store testify, those metals remain plentiful near the planet’s surface. “Precious metals in the crust are thousands of times more abundant than they should be,” Mojzsis says. This 4.1-billion-year-old zircon mineral (x-ray image) contains carbon isotopes suggestive of life. Some of Earth’s oldest mineral fragments, called zircons, were recently extracted from rock in Australia’s Jack Hills. They harbor chemical inclusions that suggest early Earth was cool enough to have liquid water. NASA/MCT/MCT VIA GETTY IMAGES last_img read more

Nipsey Hussles Alleged Killer Reveals Motive

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first_img Eric Holder , Hip Hop , Los Angeles , nipsey hussle #BREAKING: The suspect in the shooting death of musician Nipsey Hussle has been captured in Bellflower, authorities say. pic.twitter.com/5P9ItJM3kH— CBS Los Angeles (@CBSLA) April 2, 2019 More By NewsOne Staff Hip-hop is still mourning the loss of 34-year-old Nipsey Hussle who was fatally shot on March 31 outside of his Marathon Clothing store. Now, the alleged killer, 29-year-old Eric Holder, has revealed a motive, according to court docs.See Also: Never Forget: 39 Unforgettable Images Of People Protesting The Killing Of Michael BrownAccording to grand jury transcript that have just been released, Holder was upset over snitching accusations. The New York Daily News reports, Deputy District Attorney John McKinney said, “Mr. Holder got out of the car, immediately walked up to the group where Mr. Hussle, or Mr. Asghedom was, and they had a conversation. That conversation is important because that conversation had something to do with Mr. Asghedom accusing Mr. Holder of snitching, which in the gang world is a very serious offense.” Bill Cosby Gets Sentenced For His Sexual Assault Conviction US-ENTERTAINMENT-TELEVISION-COSBY-COURT Rest in power, Nipsey Hussle.SEE ALSO:Erykah Badu Demands An Apology From ‘Surviving R. Kelly’ Producer Dream HamptonOutrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothescenter_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisMoreShare to EmailEmailEmail Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist According to testimony from witness Herman Douglas, Hussle allegedly said, “Man, you know, they got some paperwork on you.”Douglas also testified, “Nipsey was more or less trying to, trying to look out for the dude, was trying to help him. Like basically warning the dude, like, you know, ‘They got some paperwork on you. I haven’t read the paperwork, but you know, you got to watch your back.’”Holder reportedly got frustrated, asked Nipsey if he ever snitched. Hussle “calmly waved Holder off” according to a woman who was with the alleged killer. Holder left but came back soon after and killed the rapper.The New York Daily News reports, “The woman said she and Holder later drove off, and that’s when Holder pulled out a gun and demanded she drive to a certain location nearby and wait for him. She said he got out without explaining himself and then jumped back in the vehicle a short time later. The woman said she was confused, but Holder threatened to slap her if she didn’t drive away.”Two days after the shooting, the woman turned herself in and sat down for a five-hour interview.Holder was a failed rapper whose street name was Shitty Cuz. The 29-year-old was arrested on April 2. He was found in Bellflower, California, which is located in southeast Los Angeles.He has been charged with one count of murder, two counts of attempted murder and one count of possession of a firearm by a felon. He is facing life in prison. A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Familylast_img read more

Jaipur added to UNESCOs World Heritage List PM Modi lauds move

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first_imgBy Express News Service |Jaipur | Updated: July 7, 2019 4:12:53 am In a session of its World Heritage Committee in Azerbaijan’s capital Baku on Saturday morning, UNESCO added seven cultural sites to its World Heritage List, including those in Australia, Bahrain, China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Laos.“Unlike other cities in the region located in hilly terrain, Jaipur was established on the plain and built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture. The streets feature continuous colonnaded businesses that intersect in the centre, creating large public squares called chaupars,” UNESCO said in a statement.“Markets, stalls, residences and temples built along the main streets have uniform facades. The city’s urban planning shows an exchange of ideas from ancient Hindu and modern Mughal as well as Western cultures. The grid plan is a model that prevails in the West, while the organisation of the different districts refers to traditional Hindu concepts. Designed to be a commercial capital, the city has maintained its local commercial, artisanal and cooperative traditions to this day,” it stated. Related News Advertising After Masood Azhar blacklisting, more isolation for Pakistan LiveKarnataka floor test: Will Kumaraswamy’s 14-month-old govt survive? Advertising Pink City Jaipur gets UNESCO World Heritage tag, PM Modi welcomes move unesco, unesco world heritage list, unesco world heritage sites, unesco world heritage sites list, jaipur unesco world heritage site, prime minister narendra modi, pm modi, ashok gehlot, india news, Indian Express UNESCO said that the city’s urban planning showed an exchange of ideas. (File)UNESCO on Saturday made Jaipur a part of its World Heritage List.center_img Best Of Express The other sites now part of the UNESCO list are the Dilmun Burial Mounds in Bahrain, Budj Bim Cultural Landscape in Australia, Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City in China, Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto in Indonesia, Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group in Japan and the Plain of Jars in Laos.Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted, “Jaipur is a city associated with culture and valour. Elegant and energetic, Jaipur’s hospitality draws people from all over. Glad that this city has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by @UNESCO.”Union Culture and Tourism Minister Prahlad Singh Patel congratulated the people of Jaipur and thanked the global community for recognising the historic and cultural importance of the pink city.Rajasthan Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot also took to Twitter to express his pleasure, terming the declaration a “matter of great pride” and that it “will add to the glory of capital city of Rajasthan”.” He said it will “give boost to tourism. Local economy will benefit along with improving of infrastructure.” Virat Kohli won’t have a say in choosing new coach 127 Hours rerun? Man gets trapped between boulders in Hampi, rescued after 4 hours Deputy CM Sachin Pilot tweeted, “Great news!! And what a wonderful feeling having the walled city of Jaipur now listed as a WorldHeritageSite @UNESCO, we must all join hands and endeavour to make Jaipur a city of pride for now and all future generations.”Former chief minister Vasundhara Raje also expressed her delight. “Jaipur has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by @UNESCO. Brimming with history, the Pink City symbolises the pinnacle of #Rajasthani cultural excellence. A matter of great pride for #Rajasthan!” Raje tweeted. World Heritage Day 2019: 5 reasons to take the kids to Hampi Post Comment(s)last_img read more